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    Human b-type natriuretic peptide (hBNP), or brain natriuretic peptide, is a 32amino acid peptide produced primarily in the heart by the left ventricle [1]. Endogenous hBNP levels are elevated in patients with HF and serve as a sensitive and specific serologic marker for left ventricular dysfunction [2],prompting speculation that hBNP may play a role in the modulation of cardiac and vascular function and fluid status in this population [3]. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is synthesized in cardiomyocytes as the precursor form (proBNP 1-108) that is cleaved by a specific enzyme to form the physiologically active BNP (77-108) and inactive N-terminal proBNP (1-76, NT-proBNP)[4].

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro BNP (NT-proBNP) are natriuretic peptides and serve as serum biomarkers for the diagnosis of heart failure [5].  Despite being equally used for the diagnosis of heart failure, there are major differences including the plasma half-time, which is about 20 min for BNP and 2570 min for NT-proBNP [6]. In healthy subjects the plasma levels of NT-proBNP are higher than BNP-levels, and in patients with increased ventricular walls tress NT-proBNP rises more than BNP [5,7]. 


    [1] Hosoda K, Nakao K, Mukoyama M, et al. Expression of brain natriuretic peptide gene in human heart. Production in the ventricle.Hypertension 1991;17:11525.

    [2] Yamamoto K, Burnett JC, Jr, Jougasaki M, et al. Superiority of brain natriuretic peptide as a hormonal marker of ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction and ventricular hypertrophy. Hypertension 1996;28:98894.

    [3] Grantham JA, Burnett JC, Jr. BNP: increasing importance in the pathophysiology and diagnosis of congestive heart failure (editorial;comment). Circulation 1997;96:38890.

    [4] Natalia N. Tamm , Alexander G. Semenov a, Karina R. Seferianet al. Measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide by two assays utilizing antibodies with different epitope specificity.Clinical Biochemistry 44 (2011) 257259

    [5] A.S. Maisel, P. Krishnaswamy, R.M. Nowak, et al., Rapid measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide in the emergency diagnosis of heart failure, N. Engl. J. Med. 347(2002) 161167.

    [6] J. Mair, Biochemistry of B-type natriuretic peptidewhere are we now? Clin. Chem.Lab. Med. 46 (2008) 15071514.

    [7] J.L. Januzzi, R. van Kimmenade, J. Lainchbury, et al., NT-proBNP testing for diagnosis and short-term prognosis inacute destabilized heart failure:an international pooled analysis of 1256 patients: the International Collaborative of NT-proBNP Study, Eur.Heart J. 27 (2006) 330337.